To determine if problem gambling in the partner is a risk factor for IPV, a cross-sectional study was conducted at a university-based Emergency Department ED. The mental health and well-being of Ontario students —
Correlates of past year gambling were examined in a diverse sample of youth ages 14—18 Male youth were more likely to gamble than female youth gamblihg African American youth reported higher rates of past year gambling than non-African American youth. Significant bivariate correlates of gambling included lower academic achievement, being out of school, working more than 20 hours per week, gamvling and marijuana use, alcohol problems, severe dating violence, moderate and severe general violence, and carrying a weapon.
When examined simultaneously, being male, African American, out of school, working for pay, alcohol gsmbling marijuana use, severe general violence and carrying a weapon all emerged as significant correlates of past year gambling, largest amount of money gambled, and gambling frequency. In addition, involvement in severe dating violence was associated with frequency and largest amount gambled.
The results suggest that gambling is common among youth in the inner city and is associated with emergendy risk behaviors. The inner city ED may provide a context for screening and intervention to address multiple risk behaviors. Gambling among gambling emergency has been identified as a growing concern, particularly due to increased rates of gambling and increased availability of legal gambling venues over the past ten years.
For example, in Michigan, legal gambling includes the state lottery, horse racing, charitable gaming, Native American-owned casino gaming, and non-Native American-owned casino gaming venues. Although adolescents do not meet the legal age required for entry into most gaming venues i. Tambling rates vary considerably, prevalence estimates indicate that the majority of adolescents have engaged in gambling, which typically includes any act gamblkng involves playing a game for money, e.
Lower rates of gambling may reflect samples with a larger percentage more frugal gambling pdf female e. Although not all youth who experiment with gambling will go on to experience a range of gambling-related consequences i.
Thus, identifying factors associated with adolescent gambling may assist in early detection and intervention to prevent the development of future problems. The purpose of the present study was to identify correlates of gambling among adolescents presenting to an inner city emergency department EDwhich includes a cross section of youth who may be missed by other gambling surveys. The link between substance use and gambling is well established. Pathological gambling shares many features with substance use disorders e.
In addition, pathological gambling and substance use disorders share similar biopsychosocial mechanisms for reviews see Petry, ; Potenza, The gamvling between gambling and substance use behaviors may reflect what Jacobs referred to as a general theory of addictions, in which all addictive freeman sued the federal deposit emerge from a desire to reduce negative affect, with gambling serving the same self-medicating purpose as alcohol or other drug use.
Despite hypothesized theoretical and situational i. In a recent study of urban youth, Martins, Storr, Ialongo, and Chilcoat examined childhood aggression i. Recently, Korman et al. The relationship between dating violence and gambling in adolescence is less well established.
The literature is limited in several other respects. First, the majority of studies have been conducted via school-based questionnaires. Although this tends to provide large samples Hardoon et al. This is problematic when assessing risk behaviors among youth as those most likely to be absent from school i. In addition, studies conducted with non-school attending youth have been limited to a restricted age range e.
Emergrncy race is examined as a predictor of gambling among adolescents, the findings are similar Martins et al. Thus, further research is needed to understand gambling involvement and markers of gambling among adolescents from non-school based settings and to determine the extent to which emergency and other background variables impact gambling involvement among adolescents. In addition, due to consistent findings that male youth are emergncy likely to gamble than female youth e.
Finally, important potential correlates of adolescent gambling, including school achievement and employment, have not yet been examined and further research is needed to determine their impact. The purpose of the present study was to examine correlates of gambling, including substance use, violence, school achievement and attendance, and employment, among adolescents presenting to an inner city emergency department EDwhich comprises a cross section of youth, including those who may not be attending school.
Recently, researchers have identified the ED as an important context for screening adolescents for various mental health and behavioral concerns e. To date, no prior studies have examined gambling and concomitant risk behaviors among adolescents presenting to the ED. Gamblingg were ED patients who completed a brief self-administered computerized screening questionnaire emdrgency part of a randomized controlled trial of an alcohol and hambling intervention over a year September through August in Flint, Michigan.
Compared to other U. Potential participants included both consecutive medical and injured patients with the gambping of Level I trauma patients who were unconscious, intubated, or in need of immediate life-saving procedures. Patients were excluded if they: Patients who were actively suicidal, emergencyy being treated emfrgency sexual assault, or being treated for symptoms associated with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were also excluded. In rare cases in which participants could not physically complete the survey e.
Among eligible patients who were approached, Reasons for refusals included: Among those who screened, Regarding injury emmergency, The majority of participants lived with a parent or guardian Regarding employment status, All measures were selected or adapted to ensure brevity and keep the screening questionnaire within 15 minutes. Participants were asked to indicate whether they had consumed alcohol more than two or three times in the past 12 months Harris et al.
We revised the items so that they were gamblinh and removed any reference to drug use. General violence items were drawn from Add Health Sieving et al. Moderate violence items were drawn from tambling CTS and included: Similarly, the CTS has been shown to be reliable and treatment for gambling in adolescent samples Straus, Only participant physical aggression toward a partner was assessed; physical victimization received from a partner was not assessed.
Note that in order to be parallel to general violence, additional descriptors were added to the list e. In order to be parallel to the violence questions, response choices were identical to the CTS Straus, items: Data were analyzed using SAS Version 9. Descriptive statistics are provided for frequency of gambling and largest amount gambled in the past year.
For school status, those not currently in school had either dropped out of school or had completed high school and were no longer enrolled in school. After examining bivariate relationships between each of the correlates and past year gambling, a series gamblong regression analyses were conducted where all correlates were examined simultaneously. Separate cumulative logit models were used for ordinal dependent variables: The proportional odds assumptions tests were not significant indicating appropriate use of the cumulative logit models Agresti, Nearly half of current gamblers The majority of participants reported engaging in severe general violence Fewer participants were involved in severe Bivariate gambbling between participants who reported gambling in the past year and those who did not report any gambling are shown in Table 2.
Men were significantly more likely to gamble than women, and African American youth were significantly more likely to gamble than non-African American youth. Participants were more likely to gamble if their average grades were a C or lower compared to average grades of a B or higherif they were not currently in school, and if they gamblint at a job for 20 hours or more per week, compared to not gmabling at all.
In addition, past year alcohol use, past year marijuana use, and problem alcohol use i. Regarding violence, participants who reported severe dating violence, those who reported moderate and emergenct general violence, and those who carried a knife, gun, or razor were more likely to gamble than those with no violence in the past year and prevent gambling past year weapon carriage.
Only receiving public assistance and cigarette smoking did not emerge as significant correlates of gambling in the past year. As listed in Table 3once all correlates were included in the model, gender, African-American race, hours per emetgency worked for pay, school status, alcohol use, marijuana use, general violence, and carrying a weapon emerged as significant correlates of gambling. Specifically, males were four times more likely to report gambling in the past year and African-American youth were over 2 times more likely emergencj report gambling.
In addition, participants who were not in school were approximately two times more likely to have gambled emergrncy those who emrrgency 20 hours or more per week were over 2. Both past year alcohol and marijuana use were associated with a higher likelihood of gambling as were severe general violence and carrying a weapon. Finally, logistic regression with cumulative logit models was used to examine the association between background variables, substance use, and violence and two ordinal dimensions of gambling behavior: The last two categories for frequency of gambling i.
Smergency findings from these models were similar and fairly consistent with the multivariable model examining any gambling in the past year. That is, male youth and African-American youth gambled more frequently in the past year and spent higher amounts of money on a single gambling occasion. In addition, youth who were not in school, those worked more than 20 hours per week, those who used alcohol or marijuana in the past year, and those who reported gabling dating violence, severe general gambing, and carried a weapon all gambled more frequently and spent higher sums of money on gambling.
This study extends previous research by examining correlates of gambling among a large, racially diverse sample of male and female adolescents, ranging in age from 14 to 18 years old. This study presents the first published data regarding rates and emerency of gambling among adolescent toys online au presenting to an inner city Gamblihg, which may include adolescents missed in school-based studies due to poor attendance or dropout.
Although almost one quarter This may reflect the measure used for the current study, which does not specify whether gambling activities involved friends e. As a result, participants may have interpreted the gambling activities as illegal forms of gambling e.
When the same measure was used in a large school-based survey, rates of past year gambling were more similar to those reported here e. We found that male and African-American youth were more likely to engage in gambling, gambling is consistent with previous research indicating higher rates of gambling among male youth Hardoon et al. Surprisingly, we found that familial socioeconomic status, assessed by asking youths whether their gakbling received public assistance, was not associated with gambling, perhaps due to restriction of range, whereas employment status was associated with gambling across all gambling dimensions emsrgency when controlling for other correlates.
Youths who worked more than 20 hours per week were more likely to gamble, spent more money during a single gambling occasion, and reported more frequent gambling in the past year. In addition, compared to youth who did not work, those who worked less than 20 hours per week were more likely to gamble in the past year and reported more frequent gambling.
There are several ganbling explanations for the present findings. Second, youth gambilng work more hours per week may have greater exposure to older teens and young adults and this affiliation with older gamblinv may be associated with increased gambling. We also found a positive relationship between not attending school and gambling. Finally, individuals who are not in school have gambilng time available to engage in gambling and real money online roulette problem behaviors.
Additional research is needed to determine the specific mechanisms through which not attending school and increased work hours are associated with gambling. Regarding emetgency use behaviors, our emregency suggest that gambling is more likely among adolescents who consume alcohol and among those who use marijuana. This is consistent with other adolescent gambling research indicating that any past year gambling is associated with alcohol and drug use Duhig et al.
Despite the significant bivariate relationship between problem drinking as assessed by a score of 2 or more on the CRAFFT and gambling, once all correlates were included in eemergency model, only past year alcohol use predicted any gambling, maximum amount spent, and frequency of gambling in the past year. We also found that gambling was more likely among youth who were involved in moderate or severe peer violence or severe dating violence in the past year.J Emerg Med. Oct;23(3) Problem gambling in the partner of the emergency department patient as a risk factor for intimate partner violence. To determine if problem gambling in the partner is a risk factor for IPV, a cross-sectional study was conducted at a university-based Emergency Department (ED). Recently, three patients were seen at the Department of Emergency exhaustion Gambling Casino ABSTRACT Complaints of fatigue and.